Proxy Voting and Governance

Process

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The Committee has retained the services of two independent proxy advisors ("Proxy Advisors") to provide the Committee with comprehensive research, analysis, and voting recommendations. These services are used most frequently in connection with proposals or matters that may be controversial or require a case-by-case analysis by the Committee in accordance with its Voting Guidelines. The Committee has engaged one of its Proxy Advisors as its proxy voting agent (the "Proxy Agent") to administer the mechanical, non-discretionary elements of proxy voting and reporting for Member Firm clients. In that administrative role, the Committee has directed the Proxy Agent to follow the specified Voting Guidelines and apply it to each applicable proxy proposal or matter where a shareholder vote is sought. Accordingly, proxy items that can be appropriately categorized and matched will be voted in accordance with the applicable guideline or referred to the Committee if the guideline so requires. Proxy proposals or shareholder voting matters for which the Committee has not yet established a guideline (e.g., new proposals arising from emerging economic or regulatory issues) will be referred to the Committee for discussion and vote decision.

For items referred to it, the Committee may determine to accept or reject any recommendation based on the research and analysis provided by its Proxy Advisors or on any independent research and analysis obtained or generated by the Committee. In all cases, the ultimate voting decision and responsibility rests with the Member Firms, which are accountable to their clients.

The foregoing information is only a portion of a broader description of the BNY Mellon Proxy Voting and Governance Committee and its philosophy, voting guidelines, process, and approach to conflicts of interest. Please refer to the Introduction section and review the related information on prior and subsequent pages for the complete overview, including the meanings of the capitalized terms used herein.